A

Acceleration: The rate of which an object changes its velocity.

Acetyl-CoA: An acetylated form of coenzyme A. It is an important intermediate in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and protein.

Actin: A protein that forms a contractive filament inside a muscle (along with myosin).

Active stretching: Also known as static-active stretching, refers to your ability to move a limb through its full range of motion with muscle work. 

Adenosine triphosphate: An energy-carrying molecule found in all living cells. It is considered the main energy currency of the cell. Adenosine triphosphate is obtained through the breakdown of food and used for nearly everything we do.

Aerobic: a reaction that occurs with oxygen.

Aerobic energy system: Energy system that requires oxygen to function. Utilizes carbohydrates, glucose, fats, and protein to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Aerobic endurance: Also known as cardiorespiratory endurance, refers to your heart’s and lungs’ ability to provide muscles with oxygen during long endurance exercises.

Aerobic fitness: Also known as cardio, and refers to your body’s ability to transport and utilize oxygen during exercise.

Aerobic threshold: A steady-state level of effort that you could keep for an extended amount of time.

Affective: arising from, relating to, or influencing emotions.

Agonist muscle: A muscle responsible for a certain movement.

All-or-none law: If a nerve or muscle fiber experiences a stimulus exceeding a threshold, it must respond completely or none at all.

Altitude training: A training method used by endurance athletes which involves training 2,400m (8,000ft) above sea level for several weeks. 

Amortization phase: The amount of time between eccentric contraction and the initiation of concentric force.

Amphiarthrodial joint: A joint that allows slight movement.

Anabolism: A reaction of small, simple cells building up into larger and more complex cells. Building muscle mass, for example. 

Anaerobic: A reaction that occurs without oxygen.

Anaerobic capacity: The total amount of energy you can produce anaerobically.

Anaerobic energy system: Energy system that does not require oxygen to function. Delivers energy to muscles when the aerobic system is unable to produce enough energy for movement. 

Anaerobic endurance: Your muscles’ ability to produce high levels of force output for as long as possible. Training intensity is higher than aerobic endurance.

Anaerobic threshold: The point of exertion where the body must switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. 

Antagonist muscle: Agonist and antagonist muscles often occur in antagonistic pairs – When the muscle that creates movement (agonist) contracts, its opposite muscle (antagonist) relaxes.

Anthropometric measurement: A series of quantitative measurements of the bone, muscle, and adipose tissue that measure body composition. These tests include weight, height, BMI, skinfold thickness, and body circumference. 

Attentional blink: Phenomenon where focusing on the second of two targets is slower and less accurate than the first.

Auditory sense: The ability to hear.

Autonomy: Ability to make your own decisions without being controlled by anyone else.

Axon: A long thread-like part of a nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell body.

B

Balance: Ability to distribute weight in static or dynamic situations to remain in an upright position. 

Ballistic stretching: A stretching method that utilizes bouncing movements to stretch limbs or muscles beyond their range of motion. 

Ballistic training: An exercise method that involves explosive throws etc. to increase power and explosive strength. 

Basal metabolic rate: The amount of energy per unit of time that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. 

Beats per minute (bpm): Used to measure heart rate, how many times the heart pumps in one minute. 

Body composition: The proportion of fat and non-fat mass in the body. Healthy body composition has a lower percentage of fat and a higher percentage of non-fat mass, which includes muscles, organs, and bones. 

C

Carbohydrate: One of the three main macronutrients alongside fats and protein. Refers to sugars, starches, and fibers found in grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. The main source of energy in the body. 

Cardiovascular system: Also known as the circulatory system or vascular system, refers to the heart, blood vessels, and the blood. It provides oxygen and nutrients to the whole body. 

Cardiac muscle tissue: Muscle tissue only be found in the heart. It is striated like skeletal muscle, but with shorter muscle fibers and often only have a single nucleus for each muscle fiber.

Cardiac output (CO): The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. Describes your heart’s ability to respond to your body’s need for oxygen. 

Catabolism: A sequence of reactions that breaks down large complex cells into smaller ones. Glycolysis, for example. 

Closed skills: a skill performed in a controlled environment where the surroundings don’t affect the movement pattern.

Cognitive processing: Brain’s ability to analyze, transform, store, and recover information.

Collagen: a protein responsible for skin and joint elasticity.

Concentric muscle movement: muscle contracts and shortens to produce movement.

Concrete operational stage: Third of the four stages in Piaget’s model of cognitive development. Characterized by the development of organized and rational thinking. 

Constructivism: a learning theory where knowledge is constructed through active interaction and participation with the environment. 

Creatine kinase: also known as creatine phosphokinase or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme that is found especially in the muscles and central nervous system. It catalyzes the conversion of creatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate. 

Cross-sectional area (PCSA): The cross-sectional area of a muscle perpendicular to its fibers. Often used to describe muscle size (hypertrophy).

D

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS): The pain or stiffness after a strenuous exercise. Usually experienced 24-72h after the workout. 

Dendrite: Extensions of a nerve cell that receive information from other neurons, transfers it to the cell body (soma), and eventually to the synapse via an axon. 

Diarthrodial joint: A joint that permits maximal motion.

Didactics: The science of teaching.

Dynamic: A process or system that is under constant change, activity, or progress. 

Dynamic balance: The ability to maintain balance while in motion. 

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"Sports is an international phenomenon, like science or music".

- Avery Brundage

E

Eccentric muscle contraction: Occurs when a force applied to the muscle exceeds the force produced by the muscle, leading to the lengthening of the muscle during contraction. 

Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG): Used to measure electrical signals of the heart. 

Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions and gains the capacity to conduct electricity. They play a role in muscle contraction, nervous impulses, etc. 

Electromyography (EMG): A diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of the muscles and the nerves that control them.

Electron carrier: Small organic molecules that switch between oxidized and reduced forms and transport electrons during metabolic reactions.

Endurance: Your body’s ability to sustain a certain level of exercise for an extended amount of time. 

Energy expenditure: The sum of the basal metabolic rate and the energy expended during physical activity. 

Enzyme: A protein molecule that speeds up biochemical reactions. 

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC): Increased rate of oxygen intake after intense exercise. Used in restoring the body to its resting state and adapting to the performed exercise. 

Explosive strength: Also known as power, refers to the body’s ability to produce the highest maximal force in an as short amount of time as possible. 

Extracellular fluid: A term for the fluids that exist outside of the organism’s cells, but inside its vessels and cavities. 

F

FADH₂: Also known as Flavin adenine dinucleotide. It is an electron carrier that transports electrons from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain.

Fast-twitch muscle fiber: Type II muscle fibers (IIa & IIb/IIx) are able to produce lots of force but they also tire quicker than slow-twitch muscle fibers. 

Fartlek training (speed play): A training method that involves exercising at various intensities during a single workout. For example, combining jogging with sprinting. 

Fat: One of the three main macronutrients alongside carbohydrates and protein. They have both structural and metabolic functions in the body and are also the most efficient energy storage in the body. 

Fat-free mass: Also known as lean mass or lean body mass, refers to the overall fat-free mass of the body. It includes muscles, bones, organs, skin, tendons, and ligaments. 

Female athlete triad: A medical condition of physically active women involving low energy availability or disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and decreased bone density.  

Formal operational stage: Last of the four stages in Piaget’s model of cognitive development. Characterized by sophisticated and advanced thinking – the ability to think about abstract and theoretical concepts using logic. 

Fibrosis: An increased amount of fibrous connective tissue in a joint or a muscle leading to impaired mobility. 

Flexibility: Your soft tissue’s (muscles, tendons, etc.) ability to elongate through the available range of motion.

FTO gene: A Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO). 

Functional training: Exercises that aim to improve your ability to perform daily activities without injuries. 

G

Gluconeogenesis: A metabolic pathway that generates glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as amino acids and lactate. 

Glucose: A simple sugar (C₆H₁₂O₆) and also the most abundant carbohydrate.

Glycogen: The form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body. Mostly in the muscles and the liver.  

Glycolysis: A pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate, which can be used as energy. 

Glycolytic capacity: Maximum rate of conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate by a single cell. 

Golgi tendon organ: A sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.

Growth plate: Also known as the epiphyseal plate or physis, is the growing tissue near the ends of long bones. Each bone has two growth plates on both ends during the early childhood and adolescent years. 

H

Health: ”A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (The World Health Organization).

Heart rate: The speed at which the heart beats per minute.

Hematocrit: Blood cell volume.

Homeostasis: A living system’s aim to maintaining a steady state in different situations.

Hydrostatic pressure: The pressure exerted by a fluid at hydrostatic equilibrium on the surface due to gravity. 

Hyperextension: A forceful movement or extension beyond a limb’s or joint’s natural range of motion. 

Hyperplasia: Muscle fiber splits into two under extreme strain.

Hypertrophy: Enlargement of skeletal muscle size through the growth of its component cells.

I

Impact set: a set of decisions made during face-to-face interactions in lessons – implementing the pre-impact decisions.

Inclusion: An educational model where students with special needs are included in regular classroom education. 

Interval training: A training session that involves repeated high-intensity exercises followed by rest periods. Interval training is usually considered anaerobic, but can also be aerobic exercise depending on the intensity. 

Intrinsic motivation: Act of doing something without external motivation – doing something because you want it yourself. 

Ischemia: Restriction of blood supply to tissues that results in oxygen shortage. 

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC): A method that involves 3-4 brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (gradual deflation) via a pressure cuff on a skeletal muscle. It is said to improve blood flow during exercise. 

Isometric muscle work: Muscle contraction that does not involve motion or have an effect on muscle length. 

J

Joint: An area where two or more bones meet each other and link the whole body into a functional whole.

"Nobody who ever gave his best regretted it".

- George Halas

K

Kilocalorie: Also known as a large calorie or food calorie, is a term used in nutrition to measure the energy value of food products. The term is used to represent the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a liter of water by one degree. One kcal equals 1000 calories or 4183 joules. 

Kinesthesia: Ability to sense the motion of a joint or limb. Primarily influenced by muscle spindles, then skin and joint receptors.

Kinetic chain: Your body’ s ability to produce movement through the coordination of multiple body segments.

L

Lactate: A conjugate base of lactic acid. 

Lactate threshold: Maximum performance an athlete can sustain without a significant increase in blood lactate level.

Lactic acid: An organic acid formed during anaerobic energy production, which quickly forms lactate in the muscles. Often used interchangeably with lactate. 

Lateral: of, at, towards, or from the sides.

Lean body mass: Also known as lean mass or fat-free mass, refers to the overall fat-free mass of the body. It includes muscles, bones, organs, skin, tendons, and ligaments. 

M

Macrocycle: Largest phase in the periodized training model, usually lasts a whole year.

Macronutrients: Also known as macros, are nutrients that the body needs a relatively large amount every day. Consists of carbohydrates, fats, and protein. 

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of organs and soft tissue. 

Manipulative skills: Performing motor skills that involve moving or using an object to complete a task. For example, bouncing a basketball.

Maximum heart rate (HR max): The highest number of beats your heart can pump during maximum stress.

Maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂max): highest amount of oxygen a person can consume during a continuous intense exercise.

Menopause: A woman stops having periods and is no longer able to get pregnant naturally.

Mesocycle: Smaller phases inside the macrocycle of the periodized training model, often consists of 2-6 cycles depending on the sport.

Metabolic training: Training routine involving specific intense exercises that increase the efficiency of your body’s metabolism. 

Metabolism: A term used to describe all chemical reactions that maintain the living state of an organism. Can be divided into catabolism and anabolism. 

Metabolite: A product or intermediate of cellular metabolism. 

Metacognition: ”Thinking about thinking”, or being aware of one’s awareness. Used to plan, monitor, and assess understanding, performance, and learning. 

Microcycle: Shortest phase in the periodized training model, often consists of 1-3 week training routines.

Micronutrients: Essential elements that the body needs in small quantities. Includes Microminerals and Vitamins. 

Monounsaturated fat: A healthy fat that has a single carbon-to-carbon double bond. Often found as a part of the Mediterranean diet in ingredients such as olive oil, sunflower oil, nuts, and avocados. 

Motor learning: Describes a relatively permanent change in a person’s ability to perform a motor skill. Encompasses motor adaptation, skill acquisition, and decision-making. 

Motor skill: A learned ability to perform a certain physical task with maximum certainty. 

Motor unit: Motor unit consists of a single motor neuron and the muscle fibers innervated by it.

Muscle contraction: A physiological phenomenon where a muscle activates and generates tension. 

Muscle cramp: A strong, painful muscle contraction that may last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. 

Muscle spindle: Receptors inside a muscle that detect changes in the length of the muscle.

Muscular strength: Maximal strength, describes your nervous system’s ability to recruit as many motor units as possible to produce as much force as possible.

Musculoskeletal system: Muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, connective tissue, and fascia.

Myocyte: Muscle fiber.

Myosin: A protein that forms a contractive filament inside a muscle (along with actin).

Myotatic reflex: Stretch reflex, involuntary muscle contractions due to sudden changes in muscle length.

N

NADH: A reduced form of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide that carries electrons from one reaction to another. An important cofactor in metabolism consisting of two nucleotides and their phosphate groups. 

NAD+: An oxidized form of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide that accepts electrons from other reactions and becomes reduced.

Neural adaptation: A change in neural responses due to consistent training. For example, the ability to recruit and activate muscles through the central nervous system. 

Neuron: Also knowns as a nerve cell, is a specialized cell that transmits nerve impulses. 

Neurotransmitter: Chemical messengers that carry signals between neurons. 

Neuromuscular: Relating to both nerves and muscles.

O

Open skill: A skill performed in an unpredictable environment where the individual has to adapt to changes in surroundings.

Overreaching: The initial phase of overtraining. 

Overtraining: This occurs when a person is no longer able to recover from strenuous exercise. Often causes a decrease in performance, plateauing, and even mental health issues. 

Oxygen consumption (VO2): The amount of oxygen taken in and used by the body, also referred to as the rate of oxygen use. Often measured using a one-minute time frame. 

P

Passive stretching: Static-passive or relaxed stretching, refers to stretching without muscle work. Often done with a partner or using an apparatus to help you stretch in a relaxed state. 

Pedagogy: Study of teaching methods (teaching style, feedback, assessment & learning theories).

Perceptual sensitivity: The amount of detection of small a stimuli from an external environment regardless of visual or auditory ability. 

Periodization: A long-term systematic planning of athletic training. Can be further divided into microcycles, mesocycles, and macrocycles. 

Phasic muscles: The muscles responsible for movement. 

Plyometric training: Exercises that involve explosive jumps, leaps, etc. Often utilizes the stretch-shortening cycle of the muscles as you make contact to the ground. 

PNF stretching: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or partner-assisted stretching, refers to flexibility exercises where you contract the muscles isometrically while in a stretched state. It is currently the fastest known way to improve overall flexibility. 

Polyunsaturated fat: A healthy fat that possesses two or more double bonds in its carbon chain. It is often found in fish, oysters, nuts, seeds, and seed oils. 

Post-activation potentiation (PAP): A phenomenon where a muscle produces more force due to its previous contraction.

Post-impact set: the assessment made after the lesson – feedback and evaluation between the goal and the outcome.

Power: Describes your ability to produce as much force in as little time as possible. Often measured by the rate of force development.

Pre-impact set: a set of educational decisions that define the intent of the lesson – planning and preparation.

Preoperational stage: Second of the four stages in Piaget’s model of cognitive development. Development of language, memory, and imagination. 

Progressive overload: The training principle where an athlete must constantly increase training volume to improve and prevent plateauing. 

Proprioception: Also known as kinaesthesia, refers to the sense of self-movement and awareness of your body in relation to its surroundings.

Protein: One of the three main macronutrients alongside carbohydrates and fats. This essential nutrient consists of amino acids and they are the structural components of the body.

Protein synthesis: Process of creating a protein molecule.

Pyramid training: Involves a slow increase (or decrease) in weight or repetitions between sets. Usually starts off with lighter weights for more repetitions, followed by higher weights with fewer repetitions. After the highest resistance and lowest repetition set, the resistance reduces again. Hence, the sets form a pyramid. 

Pyruvate: Output of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose (glycolysis). Can be converted into carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis.  

Pyruvic acid: An organic acid (a ketone), that supplies energy to living cells through the Krebs cycle when oxygen is present. 

"You're never a loser until you quit trying".

- Mike Ditka

Q

Q-angle: Quadriceps angle. The angle between the longitudinal axis of the femur representing the pull of the quadriceps muscle, and a line that represents the pull of the patellar tendon. A Q-angle greater than 20° increases the risk of the quadriceps pulling the kneecap laterally. 

QT interval: A measurement used to assess the electrical properties of the heart. It refers to the time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave.

R

Range of motion (ROM): The full movement potential of a joint. Often measured during flexion or extension. 

Rate of force development: Describes how much force you can produce in an as short amount as possible. Often used when assessing an athlete’s power capability. 

Reciprocal inhibition: A neuromuscular reflex that inhibits opposing muscles from contracting during movement. 

Relative strength: How strong you are for your size.

Repetition: A number of times a certain exercise, such as a jump, is performed continuously. 

Resistance training: Type of exercise that utilizes weights and other resistance. Used for improving muscular strength, muscular hypertrophy, and endurance. 

Respiratory exchange ratio (RER): The ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) produced and oxygen (O2) used beyond the anaerobic threshold. 

Resting heart rate: The lowest heart rate your body needs to fulfill oxygen need while resting. A lower resting heart rate is considered a sign of good physical fitness. 

Resting metabolic rate (RMR): The body’s total energy usage rate during complete rest. RMR only supports organ functions, breathing, blood circulation, breathing, and basic neurological functions. 

Running cadence: Also known as stride rate, and is often measured in strides per minute. 

S

Sarcomere: The basic contractile unit of a muscle fiber, consisting of actin and myosin.

Sarcopenia: Decrease in muscle mass that leads to loss of strength.

Sarcopenic obesity: A medical condition due to the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity.

Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy: Increased fluid inside a muscle, especially after working out. Also known as ”the pump”.

Saturated fat: Fats that are solid at room temperature. They are also connected to heart diseases, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. Common sources include red meat, whole-milk dairy products, baked goods, and even coconut oil. 

Schema: A pattern or thought process that organizes information and the relationships between them. Guides the cognitive process and behavior. 

Sensorimotor: Relating to both sensory and motor aspect of physical activity.

Sensorimotor skill: The process of receiving sensory information (touch, sight, hearing, smell, taste, etc.) and creating a response. 

Sensorimotor stage: First of the four stages in Piaget’s model of cognitive development. In this stage, infants are learning the relationship between their bodies in relation to their surroundings. Learned through trial-and-error. 

Set: A group of repetitions. A workout often consists of several sets of each exercise. 

Size principle: Motor units are recruited in order from smaller to larger motor units. The greater the resistance is, the more motor units are recruited for a specific movement. 

Skeletal muscles: Striated muscle tissue that is responsible for voluntary movement. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones via tendons.

Slow-twitch muscle fiber: Type I muscle fibers are found in skeletal muscles. They contain a high number of mitochondria, myoglobin, and capillaries, giving them their red color. Slow-twitch muscle fibers are specialized in sustained physical activities that don’t require high force production.

Smooth muscle tissue: also known as involuntary muscle, contracts automatically and is often found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder as well as in the walls of passageways like arteries and veins.

Spatial awareness: Ability to know where your body is in relation to its surroundings.

Speed: The distance traveled per unit of time.

Speed endurance: Ability to maintain near maximal speed for an extended amount of time.

Spotting: A training partner who makes sure your lifts are done safely and with good technique. A spotter may also assist with the last repetitions of a set.

Static balance: Ability to maintain balance while stationary. 

Static stretching: A stretch that does not involve movement. 

Steady-state: Highest physical workload without a continuous increase in blood lactate concentration

Strength: The ability to exert force. 

Stretch-shortening cycle: Muscle action that involves an active muscle lengthening phase immediately followed by an active muscle shortening. 

Stroke volume: The heart’s ability to pump more blood on a single heartbeat.

Substrate phosphorylation: Formation of ATP from ADP by the transfer of a phosphate group. 

Synapse: A junction between two nerve cells. 

Synarthrodial joint: A joint that permits minimal motion.

T

Tapering: Reducing the training intensity before a competition to provide more recovery time and reach peak performance. 

Thermic effect of food (TEF): The energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients. 

Thermogenesis: The process of heat production in organisms. 

Thoracic gas volume: Absolute volume of gas in the thorax at any time and at any level of alveolar pressure. 

Training frequency: A term used to describe how often a person works out during a specific time frame. 

Training intensity: Term used to describe the difficulty of a specific exercise, faster movements or higher resistance are considered to have higher intensity

Training volume: Describes the overall quantity of an exercise (higher number of repetitions or more sets). 

Trans fat: A form of unsaturated fat associated with a number of negative health effects. Usually found in hydrogenated vegetable oils that convert liquid oils into semi-solid oils. Can also be found in some meat and dairy products. 

"You miss 100% of the shots you don't take".

- Wayne Gretzky

U

Ultrasound: Sound waves with higher frequencies (2-15 MHz) than humans are able to hear. Ultrasonic imaging is used to measure body composition, assess injuries, and track the healthy progression of pregnancy. 

Undulating periodization: Non-linear periodization that utilizes different loads, repetitions, and sets on different days of the week during a single training program. 

V

Vestibular system: A sensory system located in the inner ear that provides sensory information for a sense of balance and spatial orientation. 

Visual system: Consists of a sensory organ (eye) and is part of the central nervous system that provides organisms the ability to process visual details. 

Vitamin A: A fat-soluble vitamin involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication. They are found in a number of animal products such as fish, meat, and dairy products. 

Vitamin B: A water-soluble vitamin involved in cell metabolism. They are found in meat products as well as some unprocessed carbohydrate products. 

Vitamin C: A water-soluble vitamin, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, boosts the immune system and promotes cell and collagen regeneration. They are found in food products such as fruits, vegetables, and berries. 

Vitamin D: A fat-soluble vitamin that promotes calcium absorption and bone health. It is naturally present in very few foods but produced on the skin when exposed to sunlight. They are also added to several food products on the market today. 

Vitamin E: A fat-soluble vitamin that is used in cell repair and regeneration. They are also powerful antioxidants found in nuts, seeds, plant oils, and wheat products. 

Vitamin K: A fat-soluble vitamin required for blood clotting and healing wounds. They are found in green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and different grains. 

VO2max: Maximal oxygen uptake. Refers to the capacity for oxygen consumption during maximum exercise. Also known as aerobic power. 

Voluntary muscle: A muscle with voluntary control. See skeletal muscle. 

W

Waist-hip-ratio: The circumference of the narrowest part of the waist divided by the widest part of the hip. Often used for assessing body fat distribution.

X

X chromosome: Sex chromosome found in both sexes. 

X-ray: also known as X-radiation or Röntgen, is electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength, that penetrates bodily structures to varying degrees. Used for medical imaging, cancer treatment, and even space exploration. 

Xylose: A pentose sugar involved in carbohydrate metabolism. 

Y

Y chromosome: Sex chromosome usually found only in males. 

Young runner’s heel: An overuse injury of the growing points in the heel bone.

Z

Zero transfer: Refers to the transfer of learning where one skill has no effect on the performance of another skill. 

Zinc: An essential mineral used in almost every physiological function in the body. Naturally present in foods such as seafood, cereal crops, legumes, and yeast products. 

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