Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers – An In-Depth Look

Fast-twitch muscle fibers contract with a lot of force, but fatigue easily. They can be divided into fast oxidative (type IIa) and fast glycolytic (type IIb/IIx) muscle fibers.


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Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers – An In-Depth Guide

Slow-twitch muscle fibers have a high endurance capability, but lower force production than fast-twitch fibers. Check out our article to learn more!


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Darts Checkout Chart: The Fastest Way to Finish in ’01 Games

A darts checkout chart helps you know what points to go for on your turn. Click here to learn how to use one - and download a free chart!


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The Basics of Energy Production: Chemiosmosis

Chemiosmosis refers to the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane down their electrochemical gradient. One example of this is when hydrogen ions (H+) move across the…


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The Basics of Energy Production: The Electron Transport Chain

The electron transport chain consists of four protein complexes that receive electrons from NADH and FADH2 and pumps out protons into the intermembrane space.


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The Basics of Energy Production: Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation is the final phase of cellular respiration. It produces 28 molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).


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The Basics of Energy Production: The Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle is the second phase of cellular respiration. It creates 2 ATP as well as energy precursors used in oxidative phosphorylation.


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The Basics of Energy Production: Glycolysis

Glycolysis refers to breaking down glucose to produce energy. It is the first phase of cellular respiration and generates byproducts that are used in other energy systems.


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The Basics of Energy Production: Anaerobic Respiration

Anaerobic respiration refers to producing energy without the presence of oxygen. While it generates ATP rapidly, it also creates lactate as a byproduct.


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The Basics of Energy Production: Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration refers to breaking down glucose with the presence of sufficient oxygen. It is the most efficient way to produce ATP.


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